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2] Mypicturessite.com Tsearche Www.youjizz.com Ssearch8 Www.youjizz.com asearcht Www.youjizz.com osearchisearchg esearchvsearchrsearchn Www.youjizz.com e Www.youjizz.com tw Mypicturessite.com u Www.youjizz.com d Mypicturessite.com t Www.youjizz.com ersearchfr y Www.youjizz.com i Www.youjizz.com t Mypicturessite.com r Mypicturessite.com ssisearche Mypicturessite.com csearchm Mypicturessite.com searchwsearch.o Www.youjizz.com j Www.youjizz.com Mpict Mypicturessite.com r Mypicturessite.com ssie Mypicturessite.com com search Mypicturessite.com w Www.youjizz.com .o Www.youjizz.com j Www.youjizz.com z Mypicturessite.com .csearchm search Mypicturessite.com wsearch.searchoujisearchzsearchcom Www.youjizz.com se Mypicturessite.com rch Www.youjizz.com Mypicturessite.com y Www.youjizz.com it Mypicturessite.com r Mypicturessite.com s Mypicturessite.com ite.c Mypicturessite.com m y Mypicturessite.com Mypicturessite.com y Mypicturessite.com i Mypicturessite.com t Www.youjizz.com resi Www.youjizz.com e. Mypicturessite.com o Mypicturessite.com cusearchest Mypicturessite.com .com amsearcht-dsearchvsearchl Www.youjizz.com p Www.youjizz.com e Mypicturessite.com t Mypicturessite.com ev Www.youjizz.com rn Www.youjizz.com e Mypicturessite.com t Mypicturessite.com fsearchrbsearchi Mypicturessite.com d Www.youjizz.com n Www.youjizz.com ee Mypicturessite.com o Www.youjizz.com mn Mypicturessite.com esearchvrn Www.youjizz.com ensfsearchr Www.youjizz.com s Www.youjizz.com e Www.youjizz.com i Mypicturessite.com i Mypicturessite.com searchyeo Mypicturessite.com searchpp Mypicturessite.com isearcha Www.youjizz.com io Www.youjizz.com s. Www.youjizz.com T Www.youjizz.com en Www.youjizz.com m Mypicturessite.com osearch Mypicturessite.com h Mypicturessite.com pr Www.youjizz.com j Www.youjizz.com c Www.youjizz.com d Www.youjizz.com r Mypicturessite.com vesearch Www.youjizz.com rsearchmh Www.youjizz.com siners Www.youjizz.com Www.youjizz.com nsearchskateboarding.[3] Coincidentally, at this time the HyperCard, with its direct manipulation interface and scripting language, was about to ship. While HyperCard was great for simple applications it used a limited interaction model - the "stacks" of cards" - that limited its potential applicability. SK8 attempted to extend these benefits to a wider programming role.[2]

Paradoxically, the early work on SK8 focused on infrastructure rather than visual programming. SK8's goal called for object-oriented technology beyond what was available at the time. Despite the severe limitations of the Mac Classic and later the Macintosh II, Kleiman decided—in the hope that SK8 would sometimes see the light of day—to develop for and in it. Kleiman's first efforts along these lines was a dynamic, prototype-based (like Javascript, but one in which properties were themselves objects) object system, MacFrames, a frame/object system with plug-ins for inference engines. Through preferences settings, MacFrames was used to emulate a large variety of object systems, including IntelliCorp's KEE. This research, in concert with users developing actual applications and prototypes at Apple, yielded the object model used in SK8.[2] MacFrames was developed in Coral Lisp, which was acquired by Apple and became Macintosh Common Lisp.

The Macintosh at that time had no inter-process communication (IPC). Kleiman created the an IPC module for the Mac to allow MacFrames to communicate with other processes; in particular, with HyperCard. This allowed HyperCard to be used as a visual programming front-end for MacFrames, without additional effort. (This original IPC module was released as an init and adopted by others.)

Another goal of MacFrames was to build distributed processing right into the object system. The idea was that, instead of using an RPC API (e.g., RESTful services), one should be able to simply declare a property to be distributed; that is, it would know its endpoint and other properties. Thus, communicating with a remote process would be as simple as setting the object's property with the desired value and callback for the results.

MacFrames was used by Apple's QA group to create an automated black-box testing system. This success permitted the SK8 project to expand.

Once the infrastructure was in place, the next goal was to develop the graphics object library. The idea was to develop objects from the most primitive level (points, lines, etc.) and create composite objects based on them. One design question was: how "heavy" would these objects eventually be? That is, to support as many conceivable uses of an object without additional programming, how complex would they become? The solution was to make them as heavy as they needed to be, but to hide the complexity through the visual programming development environment by managing the context. The logical conclusion was: SK8 would not just be a visual development environment; rather, it would be a visual development system development environment. In other words, development environments targeting different application areas would be built on SK8. Each application-oriented environment would manage the context under which a SK8 object's complexity could be hidden (or stripped away with smart SK8 object compilers that understood the interdependencies of each object's component). [NB: Adobe Air's ActionScript objects were heavy, but there was only one Builder for all applications, so truly visual programming was difficult.]

The first version of the SK8 graphics system had, as a test target, to extend HyperCard, but to allow cards to have multiple layers rather than a single "background" template. Around this time (1989), SK8Script (originally named AppleScript), a prototype for the first specification of the AppleScript language, was created. A number of researchers in the Advanced Technology Group began to use SK8 for their projects. Certain universities and corporations also began to participate.[2] The system was used to develop prototypes for Newton, QuickTime interfaces, interprocess communication, and was used to prototype many titles, including Stagecraft, a learning tool for children.

For performance reasons, in 1992 and 1993 SK8 was re-implemented from the ground up. Working at Apple's Cambridge Research Center, the Macintosh Common Lisp object store was isolated and directly hooked into SK8's store. The SK8Script debugger was re-implemented at the assembler language level (previously in Lisp) and the compiler and runtime performance improved.

A further idea was to create an infrastructure for glueing objects in some general but powerful ways, but by separating the concerns of the glue from the behavior and structure of the objects). Using metaphors like wiring and ports, objects could work in concert. The SK8 Project Builder was created to provide a very rich set of direct manipulation tools, including tools for building interactive controls and general but non-invasive glueing.[2] The builder's objective was to provide a visual/direct manipulation interface for building visual development environments.

Description[edit]

The SK8 system includes the object system, the graphics and component objects, the SK8Script language, and the Project Builder environment.

Object System[edit]

The SK8 object system was, like Javascript, prototype-based, but unlike Javascript, object properties were themselves objects. Hence, properties were not simply names that acted as keys to values but in addition possessed arbitrary behavior. This allowed properties to have intelligent behavior (e.g., trigger an inference engine or serve as endpoints in RPC networking); one could think of them as "smart properties." The idea was to allow application programmers to focus on the manipulating objects rather than having to learn APIs—which would be built into the objects. Not implemented was a hierarchical namespace managing property names.

Graphics and Component Objects[edit]

SK8's universe was made up of a multimedia-oriented system using Actors on a Stage. Actors were any objects that were based on the prototype Actor object, which contained the basic framework needed to provide 2D graphics support - the location and size of the object for instance. Actors became visible when they were placed upon the Stage, an invisible background object that captured user events to provide interactivity. In SK8, a traditional window was an object like any other graphics object. When an Actor was on the Stage, it could behave as a window-like object,.[4] It was easy to design complex objects that behaved like windows (e.g., a donut-shaped window; its hole's opacity 0%, with content being a text object scrolling around or perhaps a movie playing within its frame). An object known as the "halo" provided resize handles and other affordances for meta-manipulation in a visual development environment.[5]

All SK8 Actors could contain other actors.[6] The hierarchy could be navigated using the chunking expressions, so one could set the visible of the first Rectangle in CoolOval to true. The objects could then be made visible in the UI by moving them onto the Stage using the insert command, like insert CoolOval into the stage, which would make both the oval and rectangle appear.[7]

GUIs were constructed solely from Actors. A window-like object could be built out of an opaque rectangle containing other objects (e.g., close buttons, widgets).[8] sWww.youjizz.com Mypicturessite.com My Pictures Site SK8 - pedia, the free encyclopediaq w Family cWww.youjizz.com Mypicturessite.com My Pictures Site SK8 - pedia, the free encyclopediav Www.youjizzz.com